They also explain that sensemaking is complementary although quite different from what they refer to as default thinking. Default thinking is an automatic, taking-things-for-granted, unthinking use of the same tools and data to solving problems. Some designers keep pattern libraries, noting trends and repeated design elements that appear in produced artifacts. " 5 Gary Klein, Brian Moon, and Robert Hoffman, "Making Sense of Sensemaking 1: Alternative Perspectives."  8 R. Coyne, Logic Models of Design (London: Pitman, 1988). They can then write the insights on yellow note cards. They will paint a picture of a credible story, judging responses and adding criticism as appropriate. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 10:4, article 14. .  15 JD Novak and AJ Canas, "The Theory Underlying Concept Maps and How to Construct Them," Technical Report IHMC CmapTools (Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, 2006).16 Jon Kolko, "Information Architecture: Synthesis Techniques for the Muddy Middle of the Design Process."  11 Donald Schön, "Problems, Frames and Perspectives on Designing," Design Studies 5:3 (1984), 132—36.12 Hideaki Takeda, Akira Tsumaya, and Tetsuo Tomiyama, "Synthesis Thought Processes in Design." Innovation With Visualization: Seeing Things Differently, Conferencing the Pandemic, Part 5: Take-Away Lessons, "Act as if you make a difference. Yet the personal experience need not be with the specific subject matter of the design problem. Not all of the data identified in a discovery process is relevant. On a large sheet of paper, the designer begins to draw circles to illustrate the entities, and lines connecting the circles to one another in order to illustrate relationships between elements. Design thinking has the potential to improve problem definition and mechanism design in policymaking processes. They are creative activities that actively generate intellectual value, and they are unique to the discipline of design. Others prefer to search for patterns in the context of the problem. Design synthesis is fundamentally a way to apply abductive logic within the confines of a design problem. The psychology and design of decisions are ones that we can influence whether we know it or not.  The frame is usually selected without introspection, based on experience, research, and assumptions. For the latter, there is only design. After a period of reflection, they will produce a tangible artifact as a visual representation of the reflection. The physical limitation of the laptop (the size), combined with the digital limitations of the software (the organizational schema), dramatically limits the designers' ability to see the forest for the trees: they lose the ability to understand the research in totality and are limited in their ability to freely manipulate and associate individual pieces of data. Ideas are "moved forward" in a nonlinear fashion, jumping over the expected in order to arrive at the unexpected. The designer can purposefully view the problem from the perspective of a dentist, or a toothpaste manufacturer, or a child; the designer can shift cultural perspectives to think of an "average Indian" or "someone from Thailand"; the designer can reframe from the point of view of a person with no working limbs, or a group of people. Elements are deemed to be more or less important than one another, and are physically moved to illustrate this importance. Itâs about time, as weâve been through more than a decade after the last global crash and we are now at the start of the next, much longer crash, or â¦ Identifying a relationship forces the introduction of a credible (although rarely validated) story of why the elements are related. After encountering several design projects that include implicit design synthesis, a client may proclaim that they don't see the value in a discovery phase for future design activities. Sensemaking and innovation. " 4 Daniel Fallman, "Design-oriented Human-Computer Interaction." Klein, Moon, and Hoffman define sensemaking as "a motivated, continuous effort to understand connections (which can be among people, places, and events) in order to anticipate their trajectories and act effectively. But, from Madsbjergâs perspective, in design thinking knowledge is acquired only superficially rather than the deep immersion that sensemaking requires. Several hours later, the sheet of paper will be covered with what to a newcomer appears to be a mess—yet the designer has made substantial progress, and the mess actually represents the deep and meaningful sensemaking that drives innovation. It describes a very culturally-specific and archetypical example of teeth brushing. in The Shape of Reason: Essays in Honour of Paolo Legrenzi, by V Girotto, edited by V Girotto, 3—26. Because synthesis is frequently relegated to an informal step in the overall process, it is practiced implicitly; a single designer forges connections in the privacy of her own thoughts, and performs only rudimentary sensemaking. That is, A, B, and C all exist in the premises that were presented. Because of the vastness of data gathered in even a simple design problem, the quantity of data that must be analyzed is often too large to hold in attentive memory at one time, and so a designer will externalize the data through a process of spatialization. Jim Wicks, Vice President and Director of Motorola's Consumer Experience Design group explains that "design is always about synthesis—synthesis of market needs, technology trends, and business needs. Frames become the technique used to "organize the large-scale structure of inference making." The taxonomy shown in Figure 2 may be prioritized as shown in Figure 3. Edward De Bono, "Serious Creativity," The Journal for Quality and Participation 18:5 (1995), 12. This is an attempt to make obvious the sensemaking conditions described above; emphasis is placed on finding relationships and patterns between elements, and forcing an external view of things. Once the data has been externalized and the literal mess begins to be reduced, the designer begins the more intellectual task of identifying explicit and implicit relationships, physically drawing out these content-affinities through the process of organization. There is a tacit consideration of the new constraints in the strategy. Human Factors in Computing Systems, the Proceedings of CHI (Association for Computing Machinery, 2003), 225—32. Thus, reframing is a method of shifting semantic perspective in order to see things in a new way. when you are forced to try to hold in mind several models of possibilities, the task is difficult." Data prioritization will eventually identify multiple elements that can be seen as complementary, and thus a hierarchical data structure is created. Are You? Integration of Process Knowledge into Design Support Systems (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999), 249—58.  14 Edward De Bono, "Serious Creativity," The Journal for Quality and Participation 18:5 (1995), 12. The map begins to create small sentence fragments of meaning, such as "teeth can become clean by using a scrubbing motion." Schön, Donald, and Martin Rein. Frame Reflection: Towards the Resolution of Intractable Policy Controversies (New York: Basic Books, 1994). And the magic may well be desirable by some clients, as it hints that their money has been well spent. There is a great section on âDesign Thinking: The Anatomy of a Bullshit Tornadoâ. When synthesis is conducted as a private exercise, there is no visible connection between the input and the output; often, even the designers themselves are unable to articulate exactly why their design insights are valuable. Synthesis can be explained in 3 major steps. Mental Models and the Mind, 138 Part 1 (Amsterdam: Elsiver, 2006), edited by Carsten Held, Gottfried Vosgerau, and Markus Knauff. It is true that the different elements of the hypothesis were in our minds before; but it is the idea of putting together what we had never before dreamed of putting together which flashes the new suggestion before our contemplation." The map provides a visual way to understand relationships through literal connections as well as through proximity, size, shape, and scale. An insight could then be developed—that mouthwash has an implicit connection of taste and smell with going to the dentist, which taints the product in a negative light. Consider reframing the above example from the perspective of a different individual, rather than the non-descript "average person." Yet despite the acknowledged importance of this phase of the design process, there continues to appear something magical about synthesis when encountered in professional practice: because synthesis is frequently performed privately ("in the head" or "on scratch paper"), the outcome is all that is observed, and this only after the designer has explicitly begun the form-making portion of the design process. These are the keys for relating research to design—synthesis methods are the ways in which ethnographic insights lead to new, innovative, appropriate, or compelling ideas. A valid deductive argument is one that logically guarantees the truth of its conclusion, if the premises that are presented are true. These two theoretical constructs point to a structural framework upon which professional methodologies can be createdâexplicitly helping designers accomplish their work. Design thinking adopts the language of the humanities, but avoids deep understanding of context in favour of rigid rules, processes, and the â¦ Schön says that a creative design "hypothesis depends on a normative framing of the situation, a setting of some problems to be solved." Sensemaking or sense-making is the process by which people give meaning to their collective experiences. Cognition is the meaningful internal embellishment of these cues. Yet the incubation period described above can be well structured, and things that occur during that period are both repeatable and comprehendible. (Psychology Press, 2005). . And unlike deduction, but similarly true to induction, the conclusions from an abductive argument might turn out to be false, even if the premises are true. In all of the methods, it is less important to be "accurate" and more important to give some abstract and tangible form to the ideas, thoughts and reflections. If the beginning state (the research data) is compared to the end state (the design idea), it is not immediately clear how one derived the latter from the former. Perceiving, Sensemaking and Choreography (PSC): Design Thinking for Results When we perceive we want to learn from our stakeholders what the problem is and what they really need. The designer begins to move content around, physically, placing items that are related next to each other. Designers, as well as those who research and describe the process of design, continually describe design as a way of organizing complexity or finding clarity in chaos. These tools help the designer gain a strong mental model of the design space; the externalization of the research data allows for a progressive escape from the mess of content that has been gathered. Gary Klein, Brian Moon, and Robert Hoffman, "Making Sense of Sensemaking 2: A Macrocognitive Model," Intelligent Systems (IEEE) 21:5 (September/October 2006), 91. Conf. It is only the lack of understandable documentation, or the decision to not share that documentation, that creates the sense of magic. Each chart will look like this: Reframe. These problems are roadblocks to innovation, and illustrate a deep disconnect between the core process of insight development and the billed process of product development. R. Coyne, Logic Models of Design (London: Pitman, 1988). August 14, 2020 August 14, 2020 Cameron D. Norman 256 Views 0 Comments cognitive science, complexity, covid-19, design thinking, Liz Weaver, psychology, sensemaking, sketch map, strategic design, systemic design, systems thinking, Tamarack Institute for Community Engagement, The RSA, toolkit, visual thinking To better understand abduction, it's necessary to understand the duality of the forms of logic that have been more traditionally embraced by western society in argument: deduction and induction. Sensemaking is a continuous flow; it is ongoing, because the world, our interactions with the world, and our understandings of the world are constantly changing. Synthesis, in Human-Centred Design, is a collaborative process of sensemaking, which leads to creating a coherent summary of all the data gathered during the design research. An example pattern that is loosely related to the toothbrush example might be the trend in consumer goods (kitchen soap, gum, etc.) in The Shape of Reason: Essays in Honour of Paolo Legrenzi, by V Girotto, edited by V Girotto, 3—26. Through multiple steps, this method first demands the articulation of individual design insights, and then forces a structured and formal pairing of insights with existing patterns. This is accomplished by using an often implicit scale of importance, or a set of guidelines upon which to compare the data. using lines and circles. Design thinking is best approached as a habit, not as an exercise. The reframed design context will have produced new constraints or implications, or will have highlighted existing constraints and implications that may have been otherwise hidden or overlooked. Elements can be identified as being a subset (child) of a larger (parent) element, and are then physically indented to illustrate this relationship. Kevin Henry is an award-winning product designer, Associate Professor at Columbia College Chicago and the author of Drawing for Product Designers. Accessed November 3, 2008.3 Jon Kolko, "Information Architecture and Design Strategy: The Importance of Synthesis during the Process of Design" IDSA 2007 Educational Conference Proceedings (San Francisco: IDSA), 2007. It has served its purpose in delineating the design space, has allowed for a collaborative process of sensemaking, and has provided a spatial understanding of structure. During synthesis, a designer can utilize the Concept Mapping method (Figure 4, described on previous page) to organize and understand a topic, and to produce a model of that understanding. It can be argued that the more innovative the output, the more difficult it is to identify how the idea was developed at all. Abduction acts as inference or intuition, and is directly aided and assisted by personal experience. The new frame "re-embeds" a product, system, or service in a new (and not necessarily logical) context, allowing the designer to explore associations and hidden links to and from the center of focus. Insight Combination is a method of building on these established design patterns in order to create initial design ideas. Sensemaking and Framing are the phenomenon that describe the process of design synthesis and begin to create a behavioral theory of synthesis both in and out of practice. This illustrates the generative and subtly abductive nature of the map, as the designer may have no deductive or inductive way of knowing that teeth can become clean by using a scrubbing motion. Gary Klein, Brian Moon, and Robert Hoffman, "Making Sense of Sensemaking 1: Alternative Perspectives." Better design equals different decisions. Daniel Fallman, "Design-oriented Human-Computer Interaction." Creation of semantic connections between elements. But the notion that design synthesis is magical and difficult to formalize has led to a number of very large problems that plague the industries of designed artifacts: Clients don't see the relationship between design research and design ideas, and therefore discount the value of design research and design synthesis entirely.