A pair of black-backed jackals in the Kalahari desert was observed to kill a kori bustard, and on a separate occasion, a black mamba by prolonged harassment of the snake and crushing of the snake's head. , Black-backed jackals can carry diseases such as rabies, canine parvovirus, canine distemper, canine adenovirus, Ehrlichia canis, and African horse sickness. Their limbs and flanks are reddish.  Studies on allozyme divergence within the Canidae indicate that the black-backed jackal and other members of the genus Canis are separated by a considerable degree of genetic distance.  It weighs 6–13 kg (13–29 lb), stands 38–48 cm (15–19 in) at the shoulder, and measures 67.3–81.2 cm (26.5–32.0 in) in body length.  A long, black stripe extending along the flanks separates the saddle from the rest of the body, and can be used to differentiate individuals. Shoulder height can range from 35 to 50 cm (14 to 20 in). The black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas or Lupulella mesomelas ) is a canine native to eastern and southern Africa. Black-backed Jackal Image courtesy of Åsa Berndtsson/Flickr. In order to protect the babies from predators, the female changes location of the den every 2 weeks.  It is similar to the closely related side-striped jackal and more distantly related to the golden jackal, though its skull and dentition are more robust and the incisors much sharper. 373. The Black-backed jackal plays a vital role in the ecosystem of its habitat. The East African population has been isolated from the southern Africa population for quite some time. A Family Affair. The Black-backed jackals are social animals, living in pairs and family groups.  It also feeds on eggs of birds. They are both diurnal and nocturnal, though near urban areas they are usually nocturnal. The under parts, lips and chest are white (though, sometimes the under parts are rusty color). Black-backed jackals were not a popular quarry in the 19th century, and are rarely mentioned in hunter's literature. Black-backed Jackal Quick Facts. Therefore people persecute them and catch them in snares to protect their livestock. The head of jackal is dog-like with pointed ears and muzzle. They often resemble a wild dog. , The base colour is reddish brown to tan, which is particularly pronounced on the flanks and legs. They can have spots on their shoulders or chests. with taxonomic ambiguity: Workshop conclusions and recommendations. The only difference between these three species is the color of their coat and the specific habitat they prefer to live in.  The black-backed jackal is not a fussy eater, and feeds on small to medium-sized animals, as well as plant matter. They choose prey according to their own size, catching sick or weak antelopes and thus maintaining the health of the ecosystem. The black-backed jackal is actually quite a bit older than the golden. In some regions, where larger predators have been eliminated, the jackals have become dominant predators of the area. In addition, jackals living in southern part of Africa can also eat cubs of fur seal. A pair of Black-backed jackals is a strong social unit: they closely cooperate, building shelter and finding food together. Jackal Appearance and Behavior. While she was diligent in this, Dayla had a hidden battle prowess that she eventually could no longer hold secret. Pups are born from July to October. Common (Canis aureus) side-striped (Canis adustus) black-backed (Canis mesomelas) Size. The Black-Backed Jackal is very lean with a long, thin body.  Black-backed jackal pups are vulnerable to African golden wolves, ratels, and spotted and brown hyenas. , Black-backed jackals feature prominently in the folklore of the Khoikhoi, where it is often paired with the lion, whom it frequently outsmarts or betrays with its superior intelligence. The black backed jackals, which are sometimes called silver backed jackals, inhabit savannas and woodlands. The area of their distribution includes 2 regions of Africa. At the age of 3 months the youngster is weaned and after another 3-5 months it leaves to find its own territory.  According to an ancient Ethiopian folktale, jackals and man first became enemies shortly before the Great Flood, when Noah initially refused to allow jackals into the ark, thinking they were unworthy of being saved, until being commanded by God to do so. Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub, 1. Adults have few natural predators, save for leopards and African wild dogs. In East Africa, during the dry season, they hunt the young of gazelles, impalas, topi, tsessebe, and warthogs. The black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) is the smallest of three jackal species and is only found in Africa.Evolutionary it is believed to be the oldest canid in the genus Canis, which also includes domestic dogs, wolves and coyotes, with fossils dating back a couple of million years.  Albino specimens occasionally occur. On the other hand, road accidents lead to sharp decline of the Black-backed jackals’ population. Focal Length. Tail. Similarities between jackals and coyotes led Lorenz Oken, in the third volume of his Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte (1815), to place these species into a new separate genus, Thos, named after the classical Greek word θώς "jackal", but his theory had little immediate impact on taxonomy at the time. Human is the major threat to this species’ population. He sports a saddle of black on his back, accented with white speckles, and thus his title. The black-backed jackal has much finer red or red-brown fur, with a black or silver back. The black-backed jackal is a fox-like animal with a slender body, long legs and big ears. Image size. Summer births are thought to be timed to coincide with population peaks of vlei rats and four-striped grass mice, while winter births are timed for ungulate calving seasons. Scientific Name: Canis mesomelas. Along with the common jackal, there are two other species including the side-striped jackal and the black-backed jackal. Usually, unpaired adults, who are looking for mates, have larger home ranges than paired adults. The Black-Backed Jackal (Canis mesomelas), is a canine native to eastern and southern Africa. , The black-backed jackal has occupied eastern and southern Africa for at least 2-3 million years, as shown by fossil deposits in Kenya, Tanzania, and South Africa. Model. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license. , Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber named Canis mesomelas in 1775. , A mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) sequence alignment for the wolf-like canids gave a phylogenetic tree with the side-striped jackal and the black-backed jackal being the most basal members of this clade, which means that this tree is indicating an African origin for the clade. The head, ears, back and basal third of the tail are deep russet-red in color with darker top of the muzzle and thighs. , Black-backed jackals are omnivores, which feed on invertebrates, such as beetles, grasshoppers, crickets, termites, millipedes, spiders, and scorpions. This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license. One region includes the southern-most tip of the continent including South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe. The black-backed jackal is a small canid (dog) that is fairly similar in appearance to a fox. In older lambs, the main portions eaten are usually heart and liver.  In the western Cape in the early 1900s, dogs bred by crossing foxhounds, lurchers, and borzoi were used. 320 mm. Weight varies according to location; East African jackals weigh 7-13.8 kg (15-30 lb). The average lifespan in the wild is 7 years, though captive specimens can live twice as long. Females are a bit smaller and lighter in weight. Bruu… Date Taken. They measure 30–48 cm (12–19 in) in shoulder height and 60–90 cm (24–35 in) in length. The Black-Backed Jackal is a wildlife item and a predator animal.  In South Africa, black-backed jackals frequently prey on antelopes (primarily impala and springbok and occasionally duiker, reedbuck, and steenbok), carrion, hares, hoofed livestock, insects, and rodents. Min height. Black-Backed Jackal on The IUCN Red List site -, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black-backed_jackal, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/3755/0. The side-striped jackal is a medium-sized canid, which tends to be slightly larger on average than the black-backed jackal. Such encounters are normally prevented, as the pair vocalises to advertise its presence in a given area. Sheep losses to black-backed jackals in a 440 km2 study area in KwaZulu-Natal consisted of 0.05% of the sheep population. The golden jackal is also found in parts of Europe and Asia. Consequently, many jackals learned to regurgitate poisoned baits, thus inciting wildlife managers to use the less detectable crystal strychnine rather than liquid. HEIGHT. These animals are considered to be vermin because of preying on sheep and young goats. Black Backed Jackal (Latin = Canis mesomelas, Afrikaans = Rooijakkals, German = Schabbrackens Chakal) Numbers: Very high Weight: 5 - 10kg (11 - 22 lb.) For the first three weeks of their lives, the pups are kept under constant surveillance by their dam, while the sire and elder offspring provide food. They also prey on small carnivores, such as mongooses, polecats, and wildcats. Done. One region includes the southern-most tip of the continent, including South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe. We actually know that the black-backed jackal is the oldest living species in the genus Canis. Great sense of space. It is, however, more adapted to a carnivorous diet than the other jackals, as shown by its well-developed carnassial shear and the longer cutting blade of the premolars. Body mass ranges from 6.5 to 14 kg (14 to 31 lb), head-and-body length from 69 to 81 cm (27 to 32 in) and tail length from 30 to 41 cm (12 to 16 in). The black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) is the smallest of three jackal species and is only found in Africa.Evolutionary it is believed to be the oldest canid in the genus Canis, which also includes domestic dogs, wolves and coyotes, with fossils dating back a couple of million years. Jackals hunt for any food they can find, from the body of a dead animal left unwanted by other predators to an antelope they have killed themselves. Safe search; On. The other area is along the eastern coastline, including Kenya, Somalia, and Ethiopia (Smithers 1983). & Nel, J.A.J. , Compared to other members of the genus Canis, the black-backed jackal is a very ancient species, and has changed little since the Pleistocene, being the most basal wolf-like canine, alongside the closely related side-striped jackal. Coming from the sides of the black nose is a white line that runs to halfway round the face. They vary in size and color depending on the species. , The mating season takes place from late May to August, with a gestation period of 60 days. 70 to 85 centimeters in length (27 to 33 inches), 25 centimeter long tail (about 10 inches), and 40 centimeter standing height (about 16 inches) Life span. These jackals are not aggressive to larger animals and avoid humans. , The Latin mesomelas is a compound consisting of meso (middle) and melas (black). Due to their colors and body style they have been mistaken for wol… These are: the eastern part of the continent, reaching certain regions of Malawi and Somalia, and the southern part of Africa, including southern Angola. From the head to the end of the body the black backed jackal measures 96-110cm (38-43in). 4,189 black backed jackal stock photos, vectors, and illustrations are available royalty-free. Flea species include Ctenocephalides cornatus, Echidnophaga gallinacea, and Synosternus caffer. 8 to 10 kilograms (17 to 25 pounds) Size. 4,189 black backed jackal stock photos, vectors, and illustrations are available royalty-free. On its back, the jackal has a long dark saddle, stretching from the nape of its neck to the base of its tail. The black-backed jackal is not a fussy eater, and feeds on small to medium-sized animals, as well as plant matter and human refuse. See black backed jackal stock video clips. , Juliet Clutton-Brock classed the black-backed jackal as being closely related to the side-striped jackal, based on cranial and dental characters. The jackal has a long, bushy tail. The black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas), also known as the silver-backed or red jackal,  is a species of jackal which inhabits two areas of the African continent separated by roughly 900 km. CIBIO. The fur on the back is composed of a mixture of black, brown, and white hairs, sometimes giving the appearance of the dark saddle like that seen on the black-backed jackal. They also feed on carrion, lizards, and snakes. It has a shoulder height of approximately 38 to 48 cm and weighs up to 13 kg. The habitat of the black-backed jackal is quite variable ranging from small cities and the suburbs of large cities to the Namib desert (Ginsberg 1990). … These jackals have bushy tails, which are black in color. PENTAX K-5.  Coursing jackals also became a popular pastime in the Boer Republics. When the pups are 1 month old, the parents start feeding them by regurgitating food. Although oral vaccinations are effective in jackals, the long-term control of rabies continues to be a problem in areas where stray dogs are not given the same immunisation.  The black-backed jackal is relatively unspecialised, and can thrive in a wide variety of habitats, including deserts, as its kidneys are well adapted for water deprivation. Jackals will often be found around campsites searching for scraps and unattended food. Captive jackals tend to live up to 16 years due to better living conditions and no predators. See black backed jackal stock video clips. Description of Black-backed Jackal Total length 95-115cm / tail length 27-30cm /shoulder height 40cm /mass 7-10kg Typical average dog-like carnivore with red-brown fur and a distinctive black and silver saddle on its back that is broad on the neck and shoulders and … Height of shoulder of jackal is about 30 to 50 cm but also varies from the species to species as a golden shepherd has a height of about 83cm, side-striped jackal of about 69 to 81 cm, and black-backed jackal of about 60 to 90 cm. They are weaned at 8–9 weeks, and can hunt by themselves at the age of 6 months. Two sub-species are notable; the black-backed jackal is most common and found throughout Southern Africa. I love this image. Unlike its cousin, a small … , The black-backed jackal is a monogamous and territorial animal, whose social organisation greatly resembles that of the golden jackal. Black-Backed Jackal Description. Shoulder height can range from 35 to 50 cm (14 to 20 in). The saddle narrows from shoulders to the base of the tail. 8 to 9 years in the wild; up to 16 years in captivity.  It was later proposed as the genus Lupulella Hilzheimer 1906. In coastal areas, they feed on beached marine mammals, seals, fish, and mussels. 2004. Average shoulder height: 30 - 48 cm (12 - 19 in) Weight: 6 - 10 kg (13 - 22lb) Gestation period: 60 days Life expectancy: 10 - 14 years. The Black-backed jackals are very resourceful and extremely adaptable animals. The tail measures 26–40 cm (10–16 in) in length. A black- backed jackal and spotted hyenas feast on 'leftovers' from a lion kill ... photographed on safari at Masai Mara National Reserve, Kenya ... BEST VIEWED LARGE. Black-backed jackals are small, fox-like canids and are the smallest of the three species called jackal. The species lives in two discrete areas separated by roughly 900km. This jackal is a territorial animal, fiercely and aggressively defending its home range. Comment. The black-backed jackals reaches a shoulder height of 30-48 cm (12-19 in) and can weigh up to 13.8 kg (30 lb). Appearing like a fox-like canid, the Black-backed Jackal is marked with slender body, large ears and long legs.  The pups open their eyes after 8–10 days and emerge from the den at the age of 3 weeks. Although the black-backed jackal is an efficient hunter, it relies heavily on scavenging for its food supply. B lack-backed jackals are members of the Canidae family and as such are true dogs. 1 Behavior 2 Combat 3 Carcass 4 Interactions With Other Animals 4.1 Can Kill 4.2 Can Be Killed By The Black-Backed Jackal is a predator found in packs.  When trapped, it cackles like a fox. 38-48 cm. The Black Backed Jackal is found throughout southern Africa.  The oral history of the Khoikhoi indicates they have been a nuisance to pastoralists long before European settlement. , Spring traps with metal jaws were also effective, though poisoning by strychnine became more common by the late 19th century. Mites may cause sarcoptic mange. They are monogamous, living together until one of the mates dies. The pups are born in underground abandoned burrows. Its name derives from the dark silver marking along its back, where the rest of its body is typically a reddish-tan color. The slender black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) is a long-legged, medium sized canidwith a pointed, fox-like muzzle. In areas where the black-backed jackal is sympatric with the African golden wolf, the species does not howl, instead relying more on yelps. When populations of black-backed and side-striped jackal meet, it is usually the side-striped jackal that is forced out of the area, despite it being the larger species. They also feed on mammals, such as rodents, hares, and young antelopes up to the size of topi calves. 5. On its back, the jackal has a long dark saddle, stretching from the nape of its neck to the base of its tail. African golden wolf-Wikipedia. 67-81 cm. It stretches from 6 – 13kg in terms of weight, 38 – 48cm at the shoulder height and 67.3 – 81.2cm in body length as explored on Safaris in Uganda. , They tend to avoid humans. Size: 15 to 19 inches at shoulder height, 26.5 to 32 inches in length and weigh 15 to 30 lbs. The golden jackal prefers open, grassy plains, deserts and arid grasslands. They measure 30–48 cm (12–19 in) in shoulder height and 60–90 cm (24–35 in) in length. Tick species include Amblyomma hebraeum, A. marmoreum, A. nymphs, A. variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Haemaphysalis leachii, H. silacea, H. spinulosa, Hyelomma spp., Ixodes pilosus, I. rubicundus, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. evertsi, R. sanguineus, and R. simus. Safe search; On. However, the assistance of elder offspring in helping raise the pups of their parents has a greater bearing on pup survival rates than in the latter species. Their inner ears are darker than th… Black-backed Jackal Gender: Female Height: 3'6" (106.68 cm) Weight: 92 lb. They prefer dry areas, avoiding wetlands and swamps. The black-backed jackal is recognized by the mantle of black hair on the back that contrasts with the rust-colored body. These regions are separated by roughly 900 kilometers. Jackals in their winter fur were in great demand, though animals killed by poison were less valued, as their fur would shed.. Side-striped… Side-striped jackal is native to central and southern Africa. She showed her passion for fighting by challenging the warriors of the tribe. The Black-backed jackals like having several exits in their dens. MSBY Black Jackal (Japanese: ムスビイ ブラックジャッカル, Musubi Burakku Jakkaru), made plural to MSBY Black Jackals in the English translation, isa professional volleyball team in Japan's V.League, in the top tier of Division 1. By the turn of the century, jackals became increasingly popular quarry as they encroached upon human habitations after sheep farming and veld burning diminished their natural food sources.  Unlike golden jackals, which have comparatively amicable intrapack relationships, black-backed jackal pups become increasingly quarrelsome as they age, and establish more rigid dominance hierarchies. Aperture . A black saddle intermixed with silvery hair extends from the shoulders to the base of the tail. They tend to be more common in dry areas that receive an annual rainfall of between 100-200 cm (Downs et al. black backed jackal images. The Black-backed jackals are omnivores. The black and silver saddle marking on its back gives this species its distinctive appearance and name. The guard hairs of the back are 60 mm on the shoulder, decreasing to 40 mm at the base of the tail. The Ethiopian wolf is similar in size and build to North America's coyote; it is larger than the golden, black-backed, and side-striped jackals, and has comparatively longer legs. 70 to 85cm (Length) 40cm (Height). Black-backed jackals are major rabies vectors, and have been associated with epidemics, which appear to cycle every 4–8 years. As the name implies, the telling sign of the Black-Backed Jackal is that the back of it is all black. Off. The one-year-old pups often stay on after a new litter arrives for the dual purpose of … Most often seen singly or in pair at dusk or dawn, it is ochre in colour with a prominent black saddle flecked by a varying amount of white or gold. The side-striped jackal prefers moist savannas, marshes, bushlands and mountains. In areas where the black-backed jackal is sympatric with the larger side-striped jackal, the former species aggressively drives out the latter from grassland habitats into woodlands. It also occurs in farmlands, savannas, open savanna mosaics, and alpine areas. Their diet includes carrion, domestic livestock, rodents, gazelle, hares, young ungulates, lizards, birds, insects as well as fruit and berries. It … , The Tswana people often made hats and cloaks out of black-backed jackal skins. , Due to livestock losses to jackals, many hunting clubs were opened in South Africa in the 1850s. The black-backed jackal hunts on its own and in pairs or small groups. They have erect, pointed ears and long muzzles with large, round noses. 1991). When Dayla was a teenager, she was assigned to study plants to eventually become a medicinal master of the village. The tail is black-tipped, as is that of the golden jackal. Black-backed jackal in Swahili: mbweha (Canis mesomelas) Shoulder height: 35–45 cm; weight 8–12 kg. Shoulder Height: 38cm (M) 38cm (F) Mating Season: Throughout the year. It weighs 12-30 pounds and stands 15-20 inches at the shoulder. Ethiopian wolf-Wikipedia. Weight 8Kg (M) 7Kg (f) Shoulder Height: 38cm (M) 38cm (F) Mating Season: Throughout the year. They typically kill tall prey by biting at the legs and loins, and frequently go for the throat. Habitat. The two populations of black-backed jackal are also quite genetically distinct. The habitat of jackals is primarily wooded areas or grassy plains, depending on the species, and they preyed upon by eagles, leopards and hyenas. One region includes the southernmost tip of the continent, including South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe. 1/160 second. Black-backed jackal, Canis mesomelas, at Pilanesberg National Park, South Afric Date: 26 December 2014, 08:19: Source: Black-backed jackal, Canis mesomelas, at Pilanesberg National Park, South Afric : Author: Derek Keats from Johannesburg, South Africa: Licensing . The black-backed (or silver-backed) jackal is an opportunistic feeder capable of adapting to most habitats. 4. They rarely target cattle, though cows giving birth may be attacked. Nematodes carried by black-backed jackals include Ancylostoma braziliense, A. caninum, A. martinaglia, A. somaliense, A. tubaeforme, and Physaloptera praeputialis, and protozoans such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis, Rickettsia canis, Sarcocytis spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Trypanosoma congolense. Photo By R.M.S. They spend a lot of time looking for food. Jackals usually kill sheep with a throat bite, and begin feeding by opening the flank and consuming the flesh and skin of the flank, heart, liver, some ribs, haunch of hind leg, and sometimes the stomach and its contents. Black-backed jackals are one of the three main species of jackal found in Africa, usually patrolling the landscape in an attempt to scavenge on a kill or find small enough prey to hunt themselves. Golden jackal This crafty little predator feed on young antelopes. Shoulder height: 38 cm (15 in.) Black-backed jackals feature prominently in the folklore of the Khoikhoi, where it is often paired with the lion, whom it frequently outsmarts or betrays with its superior intelligence. 1600x1005px 802.65 KB. Females are a bit smaller and lighter in weight. The Black-backed jackals can be found in diverse habitats, living in coastal areas, deserts and mountains. The diet of jackals is primarily carnivorous, often consisting of reptiles, antelopes, birds and insects, as well as the occasional plant.  An alternative account comes from the ǃKung people, whose folklore tells that the jackal received the burn on its back as a punishment for its scavenging habits. - Buy this stock photo and explore similar images at Adobe Stock - Buy this stock photo and explore similar images at Adobe Stock Sales: 888-649-2990 It has a shoulder height of approximately 38 to 48 cm and weighs up to 13 kg. , Two subspecies are recognised by MSW3. Shutterstock's safe search will exclude restricted content from your search results. PENTAX. Cookie-policy; To contact us: mail to firstname.lastname@example.org Black-backed jackals are small, fox-like canids and are the smallest of the three species called jackal. 10 to 12 kgs. Make. Black-backed jackal with pointy face and big ears. The side-striped jackal occurs mostly in the northern reaches of Namibia, Botswana, and parts of Zambia. On the coastline of the Namib Desert, jackals feed primarily on marine birds (mainly Cape and white-breasted cormorants and jackass penguins), marine mammals (including Cape fur seals), fish, and insects. Description of Black-backed Jackal Total length 95-115cm / tail length 27-30cm /shoulder height 40cm /mass 7-10kg Typical average dog-like carnivore with red-brown fur and a distinctive black and silver saddle on its back that is broad on the neck and shoulders and … black backed jackal images. Angel Cabrera, in his 1932 monograph on the mammals of Morocco, questioned whether or not the presence of a cingulum on the upper molarsof the jackals and its corresponding absence in the rest of C… When they live close to settled areas, however, black-backed jackals often confine most of their activities to nighttime. The common jackal has a coat that is a mixture of yellow, brown, and gold. One story explains that the black-backed jackal gained its dark saddle when it offered to carry the Sun on its back. Off. Ratnayake. Description of Black-backed Jackal Total length 95-115cm / tail length 27-30cm /shoulder height 40cm /mass 7-10kg Typical average dog-like carnivore with red-brown fur and a distinctive black and silver saddle on its back that is broad on the neck and shoulders and … The lips, throat, chest, and inner surface of the limbs are white. The black-backed jackal can be found only in Africa. The rest of the body is mainly reddish-brown to tan, becoming redder on the sides and legs. Jackals in Etosha National Park may carry anthrax. Although poisoning had been effective in the late 19th century, its success rate in eliminating jackals waned in the 20th century, as jackals seemed to be learning to distinguish poisoned foods. The Black-backed jackal is a canid species with long and thin body. The poison was usually placed within sheep carcasses or in balls of fat, with great care being taken to avoid leaving any human scent on them. Strychnine poisoning was initially problematic, as the solution had a bitter taste, and could only work if swallowed. You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA.  The grown pups may disperse at one year of age, though some remain in their natal territories to assist their parents in raising the next generation of pups.  Black-backed jackal coursing was first introduced to the Cape Colony in the 1820s by Lord Charles Somerset, who as an avid fox hunter, sought a more effective method of managing jackal populations, as shooting proved ineffective. Loveridge, A.J.  It communicates with group members and advertises its presence by a high-pitched, whining howl, and expresses alarm through an explosive cry followed by shorter, high-pitched yelps. The hairs of the tail are the longest, measuring 70 mm in length.  The hair of the face measures 10–15 mm in length, and lengthens to 30–40 mm on the rump. The jackal’s fur ranges from fine to coarse.
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